British Artists and Their Use of Dress as a Means of Self-Expression 1910-1920
Updated: Jun 15, 2020
Jane Christina Farley
Abstract During this period of great political and social upheaval, 1910–1920, artists used dress as a way of expressing themselves, challenging social and artistic norms, and establishing themselves as a lasting creative influence in Britain. Inspired by Augustus John (1889-1961) some Slade Art school students shocked contemporaries by adopting aspects of his bohemian style. The Omega Workshop set up by Roger Fry and inspired by European art offered artists opportunites to design and make bold colourful clothes. Artists’ actual artwork and life stories are the usual focus of research but the clothes artist chose to wear can be as socially significant as their actual output.
Biography Jane Christina Farley is an Artist–Teacher who trained at Leeds University and completed an MA in Artist Teacher and Contemporary Practices at Goldsmiths, University of London. She has taught Art and Design for many years at Secondary and Higher Educational level as well as exhibiting her own work. She has been a lecturer at The National Gallery, London and also conducts freelance work at many other galleries and museums. Her particular research interest is in the emotional and dramatic effect of clothing and textiles in painting and sculpture. As part of this research, Jane is exploring how and why artists chose to wear certain clothing. Artists have frequently represented clothes and fabric in their artwork. While this primarily may add social, historical and narrative information to their work it also offers opportunities for colour, texture, movement, emotion and even tension. The connections between clothes and artists would seem to be a fascinating idea to explore. While much has been written about clothing in paintings what artists actually choose to wear themselves usually gets only incidental mention in monographs and other studies. 1
This paper will examine the theories and ideas behind clothing and identity as well as briefly set out the political and social context of the period. It will then look at the divergent influences at play in the British art scene and examine how certain artists presented themselves or becameinvolvedinclothingproductionforothers. Itwillendeavourto show how this furthered their opportunities for self-expression. It may seem easy to dismiss this notion about artist’s dress as surely when working with paints and other messy materials someone would simply wear practical clothing, overalls or a smock. This is one example - a smock from the Victoria and Albert Museum. (Figure 1,2 and 3) However, being concerned essentially with visual appearances it is quite likely that a concern for colour, texture and line in their work will carry over into concern for their own physical appearance. Figure 1
A woman’s smock of unbleached linen. 1900 Great Britain. Victoria and Albert Museum Archive – T.130 – 2015
Figure 2 Detail of smocking on artist’s smock. Victoria and Albert Museum Archive – T.130 -2015
Figure 3 Evidence of hand-sewing on artist’s smock. Victoria and Albert Museum Archive – T.130 - 2015
Despite sumptuary laws in seventeenth-century Holland that regulated the type of fabric and clothes to be worn by various sections of society it proved difficult to lay down sartorial rules for painters. An unidentified lawyer J van B from Amsterdam wrote;
“With regard to painters, I have not yet been able to come to a resolution; so very diverse are these people, and many are also passionate of spirit: some are indeed painters... and are divine in art and mind.”1 The sense that creative people are somehow exempt from the normal conventions of dress and are likely to dress differently to mainstream society has filtered down throughout the centuries. Constructing Identity Through Clothing. Dress allows wearers to communicate who they are and also the complexities of their individuality. Fred Davis wrote; “Obviously, because clothing... comprises what is most closely attached to the corporeal self – it frames much of what we see when we see another – it quite naturally acquires a special capacity to, speaking somewhat loosely ‘Say things’ about the self. Dress, then, comes easily to serve as a kind of visual metaphor for identity” 2 Anne Hollander wrote that; "Fashion is a form of visual art, a creation of images with the visible self as it’s medium.” 3 Clothing acts as the medium, creating a visual representation of personality and individuality. What is more clothing can be seen as having “agency” enabling individuals to exert power over the prevailing social conditions and conventions. 4
This sense of ‘agency’ was of special importance in the period 1910-1920, which was one of great social, political and cultural upheaval with many powerful and what could be seen as contradictory forces at play. Conventional Edwardian and patriarchal society was and had been challenged by the suffragette movement and women who demanded more equal opportunities to play a part in national life and express themselves. There was also an increasingly patriotic and nationalistic atmosphere, which would ultimately lead to war while at the same time thinkers, and philosophers pondered ideas of pacifism and a social system based on “peaceful co-operation rather than violent competition.” 5 The artists of the period reflect these shifts in thinking and at times came to clash even with each other over their ideals. Women artists buoyed up, no doubt, by the suffragette movement were challenging female stereotypes and advancing into areas of art education previously closed off to them.
At the same time European art movements infiltrated the British art scene - Post-Impressionism and Futurism being two important influences that played out amongst British artists. Post-Impressionism developed out of Impressionism in France in the 1890’s and was characterized by a more subjective approach to painting and experimentation with the science of optics. Futurism began in Italy in the early twentieth century and drew inspiration from the speed, energy and technology of the modern world. These movements were referred to as the dramatic winds of modernism that swept over to Britain from the continent. However, the ground work in British life and culture had been established which helped prepare the way for such influences.
Art and the Suffragettes The Suffragette movement was reaching a climax in this period with protest, attacks against property, imprisonment, force-feeding and attacks in art galleries. Many suffragettes were artists such as Sylvia Pankhurst who could have gone on to a successful career but dedicated her life to the suffragette cause. 6The distinctive white dresses, purple and green ribbons and decoration were the work of women artists working together in studios and ateliers. (Figure 4)
Figure 4 A Suffragette Workshop/Atelier, Exhibition Photograph, The National Trust, Killerton House, Devon, 2018.
It is thought that the suffragette movement not only fought for women’s enfranchisement but also made possible “New and previously unimaginable types of formative life experiences for individual woman.”7
The British Art World 1910 One of the most prominent artists of the period was Augustus John (1878- 1961). He was fascinated by Romany, gypsy culture and influenced by the academic and scholar John Sampson. These photographs of John show him wearing Bohemian Gypsy style clothing and unkempt beard. (Figures 5 and 6) From 1909 he took his family on the road in a gypsy caravan and along with other non-conformist artists and intellectuals he revelled in the anti-establishment, nostalgic ideal of a supposedly unified and expressive culture. John epitomized the ideas of a Bohemian artist and influenced successive generations with his art but also his personal philosophy and image – holding court at the Café Royal in Piccadilly, London.
Figure 5 A photograph of Augustus John in his gypsy styled role 1909. With thanks to The National Portrait Gallery
Figure 6 Augustus John and his family move around the country in a gypsy caravan. 1909 With thanks to The National Portrait Gallery and a Private collection.
Another significant artist at this time was Walter Sickert who had been part of the New English Art Club who then broke away to form the London Impressionist group. However, in 1911 along with Spencer Gore he set up the Campden Town Group with its Saturday afternoon meetings. (Figure 7)
Figure 7 Walter Richard Sickert (1860-1942) With thanks to The National Portrait Gallery. Photograph by B.Walter Barnett. Coll V&A Museum.
One of the main aims of this research has been to try to find and examine some of the actual garments these artists designed, made or wore. The Tate Archive holds two pairs of Sickert’s linen painting trousers and three jackets and a bag. They were used in Dieppe and Envermeu (France) circa 1912. Both pairs of trousers and one of the jackets bear the initials “WS”. The bag has the name “Sickert” on it. The trousers and jackets are large and would probably have been worn over other clothes. Some items have buttons with the words Sartoria Pietro Pozzi” on them suggesting he bought them in Venice. (Figures 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12) Although cleaned they carry stains and are reasonably well worn – reflecting the physical activity associated with painting and sealing forever in time a moment of creative production. (Figure 13)
Figure 8 Walter Richard Sickert’s painting trousers and jacket, linen, 1912 Tate Gallery Archive, London 8132/1-5
Figure 9 Back of Walter Sickert’s painting trousers, Linen, 1912 Tate Gallery Archive, London 8132/1-5
Figure 10 Initials on Walter Sickert’s painting garment, Linen, 1912 Tate Gallery Archive, London 8132/3
Figure 12 Walter Sickert’s painting garment showing an example of a button with the words Sartoria Pietro Pozzi. 1912 Tate Gallery Archive, London. 8132/1-5
Figure 13 Walter Sickert’s Jacket showing paint stains. 1912, Linen. Tate Gallery Archive, London. 8132/1-5
Dame Laura Knight (1887-1970) was another significant, British artist who helped prepare the way for change. She began her art training at Nottingham School of Art at the age of 13. Although, here, she was excluded from life-classes her 1913 Self-Portrait now in the National Portrait Gallery presents a confident, unconventional, defiant image of the artist and her nude companion and fellow artist, Ella Naper. 8 (Figure 14) She wears a red, knitted cardigan that as a favourite garment of hers appears in several other paintings and was purchased in a jumble sale in Penzance. An art critic christened it the “Cornish Scarlett”. 9 Her felt hat has a hatband made from coloured, twisted wool braid and she has a stripped, black and white necktie that echoes the striped towel on which Ella stands.
Figure 14 “Self-Portrait – The Model” 1913 Dame Laura Knight (1887-1970) Oil on Canvas 152.4x127.6 cms. By courtesy of The National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG 4839
In her independent, determined and adventurous life as an artist Dame Laura Knight epitomizes the phenomenon of the expressive, individualistic lives and work of women artist who followed in her wake. These women artists included amongst others Dora Carrington, Vanessa Bell, Nina Hamnett, and Gwen John. All the efforts of artists to establish and express their unconventionality and originality have to be seen against the backdrop of the highly conventional and strict dress codes of the early twentieth century. Virginia Woolf wrote that; “on or about December 1910 human character changed” 10 These young artists needed a new guise to express their quest for a new identity. Despite the relatively conventional art teaching at The Slade School of Art some of the students, both male and female acquired notoriety as much for their appearance as their actual work.
David Boyd Haycock writes of artist, C R W Nevinson’s first day at The Slade; “Already dressing as the art school Bohemian in the style of Augustus John (a rakish growth of beard on his cheeks, a large bow tie and waistcoat complimented by socks and handkerchiefs of ‘delicate peacock blue’ Nevinson was immediately going to attract attention.” 11
He along with Marc Gertler and others soon became part of a group who were dubbed ‘The Slade Coster Gang.’ Looking like market traders in black jerseys, scarlet mufflers and black caps or hats they met up with fellow artists more especially Augustus John at the Café Royal or the Petit Savoyard in Soho. Fights would sometimes break out between them and rival groups who insulted their clothes. Eventually all artists or anyone “dressed like an artist” was banned. 12
According to Virginia Nicholson; “...shabbiness seemed romantic rather than degenerate.”13
Later Nevinson abandoned this and began to dress like a stockbroker, which seems to be how he has portrayed himself in this self-portrait although even now his hat is large, flamboyant and glamorous. (Figure 15) These young artists inherited some ideas from the nineteenth century such as the intellectual belief that following fashion was the worship of false Gods and also the pervasive influence of the Rational Dress campaign that emphasised comfort and hygiene rather than constricting styles and unnecessary frills and decoration. Essential also was the task of keeping one step ahead of copycat followers. 14
Figure 15 “Self-Portrait” 1911, Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson (1889- 1946) Oil on Wood. Tate Gallery, London. N04672
It was the young women artists at The Slade who in their desire to challenge convention used their dress and appearance to express their often unusual and contradictory characteristics and personalities. A famous photograph introduces us to three of these young women dubbed “The Slade Maids” 1911 – Dora Carrington, Barbara Hiles and Dorothy Brett. (Figure 16) Dora Carrington cut her long hair into a boyish bob and along with others copied her dress designs from Augustus John’s gypsy drawings. (Figures 17,18 and 19) In a bid to establish her identity she dropped her first name calling herself simply Carrington. This and her now more androgynous appearance perfectly expressed her ambivalent sexuality. She notoriously avoided the advances of male admirers eventually sharing her life with Lytton Strachey, the renowned writer and homosexual. 15
Figure 16 “The Slade Maids” 1911 Dora Houghton Carrington (1893-1932) Barbara Bagenal, nee Hiles (1891-1984) Dorothy Eugenie Brett (1883-1977)
With thanks to The National Portrait Gallery, London. Original Source- The Tate Gallery Archive TGA797
Figure 17 Dora Carrington 1910 Tate Gallery Archive TGA 797/6/4 Presented by Noel Carrington in 1979
Figure 18 Carrington C1911 Tate Gallery Archive TGA 797/6/4
Figure 19 “Portrait of Dorelia, standing full length” Pencil on paper Augustus Edwin John O.M. R.A. (1878-1961) With thanks to The National Portrait Gallery. Original source – Christie’s “British Art on Paper”
Slade girls like Dorothy Brett wore corduroy knee breeches or calico peg tops. At first these were made by a tailor but later she was relieved to find she could buy “les pantaloons d’ouvriers” from Paris. 16 To defy conventions in such a way – as it was not considered acceptable for women to wear trousers, was both revolutionary and empowering. They were determined to be the equal of male artists despite not being allowed to mix with them in classes and the chauvinism rife in the art world generally .
Their new appearance formed part of a series of personal changes that helped them to break away from the conventions and expectations of society. Innovation, novelty, daring and humour came together and were reflected in their clothes and behaviour. In her 1932 autobiography, “Laughing Torso” Nina Hamnett recorded meeting Carrington and that she wore one red shoe and one blue. 17 They also drew cartoons lampooning themselves. Iris Tree, poet, artist’s model and Bohemian wore ethnic fabrics and sarongs with designs based on the work of artist Paul Gauguin that she had hand sewn, woven and knitted herself in a spirit of experimentation and self- expression. 18
At the same time as these art students were breaking with conventions in both their life styles and clothing there was a series of ground breaking Art exhibitions – the first being Roger Fry’s “Manet and the Post Impressionists” in 1910. This was then succeeded by other exhibitions that continued the trend of introducing British artists to continental influences. In 1913 Roger Fry set up The Omega Workshop in which young artists could earn while they produced interior designs, book illustrations, paintings, sculptures and clothes. Inspired by continental art they brought freshness, spontaneity and bold, simplified forms and colours to their designs in contrast to factory made, commercial equivalents.
One of the most important founder members of The Omega Workshop was Vanessa Bell, sister of Virginia Woolf and part of the Bloomsbury group. Bell not only led the way towards abstraction in her painting but also was instrumental in the organization of the workshop designing fabrics for interior use and clothes including silk scarves, hats, dresses and parasols.
One of the dressmakers at The Omega Workshop, Christine Nash, wrote to her brother, John Nash, the artist, that she was taking the required hour length lunch break while; “making a green, yellow, black, white, khaki check dress for Nina Hamnett.”19 The letter seen in Figure 20 refers to the dress in this portrait of Nina by Roger Fry. (Figure 21)
Figure 20 “Letter from Christine Nash to John Nash about working at The Omega Workshop” Pencil on A5 notepaper With thanks to The Tate Archive – John Nash. TGA 8910/1/2/1081
Figure 21 “Portrait of Nina Hamnett” 1917 Roger Fry (1866-1934) Oil on Canvas 1027mmx1490mm framed Source – The Stanley and Audrey Burton Gallery, Leeds University Art Collection
It is difficult to find many examples of Omega workshop designed and made clothing today. It was criticized for being gaudy at the time and although favoured by other artists and their friends it was often badly made. “Omega products combine strikingly original and attractive design with amateurish execution.” 20 Despite this it has been possible to find a few actual examples and some pictures. The dresses were brightly coloured, simple in style and shapeless. Those individuals recorded as actually making them included Joy Brown, Christine Nash and Kate Lechmere. 21
There is a painting by Duncan Grant of Vanessa Bell wearing a yellow waistcoat almost certainly made for her by Kate Lechmere. (Figure 22)
Figure 22 “Vanessa Bell at Charleston” 1917 Duncan Grant (1885-1978) Oil on Canvas 1270mmx1016mm The National Portrait Gallery, London NPG 554
The Victoria and Albert Museum have two Omega shawls – one is too fragile to be moved or viewed and the second has been at an exhibition in Stockholm. In the catalogue it is described as being “the epitome of freehand spontaneity.”22 The design including peacocks, a popular motif of the Arts and Crafts movement and was made by Roger Fry in 1913- 1914. (Figure 23) However, the motif was included in an almost abstract design which being influenced by developments in painting on the continent was far ahead of any fashion designs in Britain at the time. It was made of painted, cream silk and was probably given as a wedding present to a dressmaker who worked for the Omega workshop.
There is a burnoose which is a long, loose hooded cloak worn by Arabs. This has been on exhibition at the Pompidou Metz and is typical of the individual, unique, hand painted pieces made by the Omega workshop. (Figure 24) It is made of natural, coloured silk with wooden, bead edging and has a painted, central circular motif featuring a bat. 23
Figure 23 Omega Shawl, Painted silk 1913-1914 Roger Fry Victoria and Albert Museum Archive CIRC.640-1964
Figure 24 A Burnoose, 1915-1919, Hand Painted silk Designed and made in the Omega Workshop. Victoria and Albert Museum Archive, T .118-2012 https://www.agsa.sa.gov.au/collection- publications/collection/works/pair-of-pyjamas-in-maud-design/27450
It was possible to see a tie made by Winifred Gill in 1915 at The Victoria and Albert Museum Archive. The glowing colours, purple, blue, yellow and orange and experimental brushwork on the silk was impressively modern in design. There are four rows of green stitching along the tie and orange stitching at one end as well as the use of the selvage edge of the fabric. The homemade quality of the workmanship is in contrast to the modern design especially when we consider this was made over a hundred years ago. (Figures 25,26,27,28)
Figure 25 Silk Tie 1915 Winifred Gill (1891-1981) at The Omega Workshop The Victoria and Albert Museum Textiles Archive CIRC.442-1962
Figure 26 Silk Tie 1915 Winifred Gill (1891-1981) At The Omega Workshop The Victoria and Albert Museum Textiles Archive CIRC.442-1962 Evidence of experimental use of colour and brushwork
Figure 27 Silk Tie 1915 Winifred Gill (1891-1981) At The Omega Workshop The Victoria and Albert Museum Textiles Archive CIRC.442-1962 Three rows of stitching.
Figure 28 Silk Tie 1915 Winifred Gill (1891-1981) At The Omega Workshop The Victoria and Albert Museum Textiles Archive CIRC.442-1962 Use of the selvage edge.
There is a waistcoat designed by Roger Fry in 1913 made from a jacquard-woven woollen and linen furnishing fabric block- printed with an abstract pattern. 24 (Figure 29) The Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide currently has a pair of pyjamas in Maud design designed by Vanessa Bell and made in printed linen. 25 (Figure 30)
Figure 29 Waistcoat 1913 Roger Fry (1866-1934) Jacquard-woven and block printed wool and linen. Victoria and Albert Museum Textile Archive. CIRC. 1-1963
Figure 30 Pair of Pyjamas in Maud Design 1918 Vanessa Bell (1879-1961) Linen in Maud design 1913. The Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide. Estate of Vanessa Bell, Courtesy of Henrietta Garnett https://www.agsa.sa.gov.au/collection- publications/collection/works/pair-of-pyjamas-in-maud-design/27450/
European art movements of the period, such as Fauvism, with its bold colours and Cubism and Futurism both of which involved experimentation with shape, design and abstraction had a profound effect on British artists. Artists were excited by these different influences and sometimes changed allegiances to suit their particular vision. Originally part of the Omega workshop Wyndham Lewis and others broke away to form the Rebel Art Group and later The Vorticists. They were mainly a British art movement and their pronouncements were in awe of the new, dynamic machine age and aggressive in tone. Lewis himself cultivated an exotic appearance. (Figure 31)
Figure 31 Percy Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957) The National Portrait Gallery. Original source –Photograph by G.E. Beresford 7709 (106)
Wyndham Lewis designed an embroidered and block printed silk robe in 1912-1914. It is a full-length gown with alternate bands of colour and bands of stylized foxes, swans, fish and kneeling figures. It sold in 2017 for £29,000 and there is some discussion about whether it was produced while he was part of the Omega workshop or whether it was after he left. 26(Figure 32)
Figure 32 Silk robe 1912-1914 Percy Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957) Source – Internet Article on sale at Mallams of Oxford. 2017 https://www.antiquestradegazette.com/news/2017/extraordinary- exam....vant-garde-clothing-makes-eight-times-estimate-at-oxford- auction/
Lewis was both a writer and an artist and throughout his work he explored various ideas about clothing as having an extraordinary metaphoric potential for describing a persons personality. He saw clothes as part of the many extensions in life which individuals use to self-identify and also to avoid disclosure of the self by external covering. 27
These ideas seem to preempt much of our own interest in identity politics and reflected the way so many artists of the period had used their clothing to disassociate from reactionary forces and establish their own unique individuality. Women artists especially used clothes and their appearance in this way and simultaneously identified themselves with a new powerful, progressive modernism.
As the decade progressed and the practical demands of the First World War took effect the more modern, simpler and emancipated style of women’s clothing promoted and favoured by these artists for their own personal reasons became a more widespread necessity. Women in the armed forces wore skirted versions of military uniform and those filling rolls in society vacated by men now serving their country needed to wear trousers or simple style dresses as they worked in factories, driving trams and buses or on the land.
This brief period of artistic expression in clothing, both male and female, has reverberated down the decades to us as we look to our artists and designers for ways to reflect social change and disrupt tired conventions. Although the Omega Workshop closed in 1919, today, a hundred years later, we can buy facsimile Omega designed clothes and fabric from shops and galleries which could be interpreted as part of a nostalgic heritage culture but must also be seen as a testament to the quality of the patterns and colour combinations they chose.
1 WPC Knuttel, “Catalogus vande pamfletten-verzameling berustende in de Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, 1892 in Marieke De Winkel. “Fashion and Fancy, Dress and Meaning in Rembrandt’s Paintings” Amsterdam University Press, 2006, p 147
2 Fred Davis,“Fashion, Culture, and Identity,” Chicago: The University of Chicago Press 1992 p25. as seen in; Neumann, Jessica, "Fashioning the Self: Performance, Identity and Difference" 2011. Electronic theses and Dissertations. 475. hps://digitalcommons.du.edu/etd/475
3 Anne Hollander, “Seeing Through Clothes.”University of California Press, Ltd 1993 p311. As quoted in Elizabeth Wilson,”Adorned in Dreams, Fashion and Modernity” I. B. Tauris and Co Ltd,London. 2003 p 9.
4 “Clothing can thus be used as a form of agency, a thing through which the individual exerts power and a commodity that helps define social relationships.” in Jessica Neumann, "Fashioning the Self: Performance, Identity and Difference" 2011. Electronic theses and Dissertations. 475. p31. hps://digitalcommons.du.edu/etd/475
5 Grace Brockington, “Above The Battlefield, Modernism and the Peace Movement in Britain 1900-1918.” Tate Library Millbank, Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 2010, pp 3-4.
6 Hester and Olivia Reeve, “The Sylvia Pankhurst Memorial Lecture,” Wortley Hall. August 2011 p 6.
7 Ibid, p18.
8 Teresa Grimes, Judith Collins, Oriana Baddeley, “Five Women Painters” A Channel Four Book in Association with the Arts Council of Great Britain, Lennard Publishing, Harpenden, Herts, 1989, p27.
9 http://www.damelauraknight.com/artwork/self-portrait-and-nude-aka-the-model- 1913/ accessed 20 September 2018.
10 Virginia Nicholson, “Among the Bohemians, Experiment in Living 1900- 1939” Penguin Books. London, England, 2003, p 146.
11 David Boyd Haycock, “The Crisis of Brilliance, Five Young British Artists and the Great War.” Old Street Publishing Ltd, 40 bowling Green Lane, London EC1R 0NE, 2009. p 49.
12 Ibid, p54.
13Nicholson, op cit, p 136. “Nostalgie de la Boue made shabbiness seem romantic rather than degenerate – degeneracy was wanting to trick oneself out in frippery and tight collars – and many artists took an honest pride in appearing undisguised.”
14 Ibid p158-9
15 Grimes, Collins, Baddeley, “Five Women Painters” op cit, p84-116.
16 Nicholson, op cit, p152-153.
17 Nina Hamnett, “Laughing Torso, Reminiscences of Nina Hamnett” Ray Long and Richards R Smith, Inc. New York 1932 p36. As seen online at universalibrary, Universal Digital Library.
18 Nicholson, op cit, p144.
19 John Nash, Tate Gallery Archive TGA 8910/1/2/1081 Letter from sister, Christine Nash, written during the enforced lunch break at The Omega Workshop where she was making a dress for Nina Hamnett.
20Michael Webb, “The Last Flourish of Aestheticism, The Omega Workshop 1913-1920” Country Life Magazine – Jan 2nd 1964 as seen at The Victoria and Albert Archive.
21 Aileen Ribeiro, “Clothing Art, The Visual Culture of Fashion 1600-1914.” Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 2017, p502.
22 Victoria and Albert Archive CIRC.640-1964 http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/0166013/shawl-fry-roger-eliot accessed 27th May 2018
23 V&A Archive T.118-2012 http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/01249160/burnoose- omega-workshops/ accessed 27th May 2018
24 V&A Archive CIRC.1-1963http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/0105852/cracow- waistcoat-fry-roger-eliot/ accessed 27th May 2018
25 Pair of Pyjamas in Maud design, 1918 designed 1913. Bloomsbury, London. Printed linen. www.artgallery.sa.gov.au/learning accessed 2/5/2018
26 Silk robe designed by Percy Wyndham Lewis. https://www.antiquestradegazette.com/news accessed 6/6/2018
27 John David Mighton, “Wyndham Lewis: Clothing as Metaphor” Doctoral thesis 1975 University of Alberta. Chapter 1 p8-9, Chapter 2 p11-15.